A.   Background information

     In 1935 it was my good fortune to be born in the state of Iowa, U.S.A.  My parents were low to middle class people of German, Irish, and English origin.  I was also fortunate to be able to attend public schools in Iowa from Kindergarten to Ph.D.   I retired as Professor Emeritus from Iowa State University in 1997.

B.   Motivation to write software

     Many students and researchers throughout the world can not afford to buy statistics books and programs for their personal use.  I personally believe free education should be available to all people, not just those with the ability to buy their education.  The internet now provides a means for distributing a wide variety of instructional material (books, programs, dictionaries, etc.)  If computers or terminals can be made available to them, people can now gain instruction in just about any subject.  For example, the Kahn Academy computer site provides coursework in a large array of topics.  Search "engines" can find many of these educational sites.  I began the development of statistics software soon after I built an "Altair" computer from a kit back in 1970 using the BASIC language.  Commodor computers were the next platform and finally the PC's.  My original motivation was to develop statistics programs that could be used by my students in educational statistics.  Following my retirement I continued the work as a hobby.  Since then the package has grown to include procedures useful to a wide variety of disciplines.  As a professor, I also taught computer programming and electronics in addition to statistics.  Using multiple languages (BASIC, COBOL, COMAL, LOGO, Pascal, C and C++) has been fun and helpful in teaching programming.  In many respects I like Pascal for development but C++ is more widely used in the commercial world.  Compilors that have an "Integrated Development Environment (IDE) make the development of programs with graphical interfaces far easier than others.  I have used the Borland Delphi (Pascal) and Borland C++ packages for the past 15 years.  Because of the development of Window types of systems (Microsoft Windows, Apple OSx, Linux, etc.) cross-platform development has been a challenge.  The Lazarus project now provides the ability to write a program (in Pascal) that can be compiled for multiple operating systems.  While there are still some minor compatability issues with this tool, the fact that it is free makes it inviting.  My LazStats program was written in the Lazarus IDE to make a package similar to OpenStat available for Linux (and other) platforms.  Again, use of a free compiler as advanced as Lazarus makes the world of programming available to anyone with internet access.  The Java language is another free package which can be used to develop programs.  Free education!  That is the goal.

C   Education

     It should be clear from the previous sections that I believe education is the most important tool that we have for improving the world.  Further, we should endeavor to make it free and continuous.  Television and the computer have great potential for delivery of free instruction.  If you have beeen a teacher, you know there are wide differences among children and adults with regard to the readiness and ability to learn.  To place children into chronological age groups and give them identical instruction is foolish and ignores reality.  While peer interaction and learning of social skills is important, individualized instruction can still exist within a group setting.  Using the current and forthcoming technological tools, instruction can be tailored to the individual's needs.  There are 7 year old children ready to learn some skills and knowledge that some college age individuals are not ready to learn.  If we examine the cost of buildings, staff, supplies, etc. we can see why education, particularly at the college level has become impossible for a growing segment of the population.  Certainly we can come up with alternatives that will make the achievement of college degrees available to students with access to a computer.  Certification of self-achieved learning goals may pose a challenge to assure honesty and common standards for various "majors" or disciplines.  Whether this involves software or even local evaluators to perform, I believe it can be done.

D.   My Professional experiences

Professor Emeritus, Industrial Technology Department, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.
PLACE OF BIRTH AND DATE : Cedar Rapids, Iowa April 1, 1935
HOBBIES: Photography, Computer Construction, Computer programming and analysis, Woodworking, Fishing, Writing Poetry, Music

HIGH SCHOOL : Franklin High School, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 1953
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE : Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, Ames, Iowa 1957.
MAJOR: Industrial Arts. MINOR: Mathematics.
MASTER OF SCIENCE : Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 1961.
MAJOR: Psychology. MINOR: Statistics.
POST MASTER'S : Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 1962.
MAJOR: Sociology. MINOR: Statistics.
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY : University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 1967.
MAJOR: Educational Psychology, Measurement and Statistics.
COLLEGE HONORS :Dean's Honor Roll 1953, 1957.
Phi Delta Kappa,
Psi Chi, 1961.
Alpha Kappa Delta 1962.
Epsilon Pi Tau 1979.
Phi Kappa Phi 1981.

IBM Training Institutes on Data Base Management 1975.
AERA Bayesian Statistics Seminar 1968.
American Educational Res. Assoc. Program Evaluation Seminar 1976.
AERA Rasch Model Item Scaling Seminar 1977.
CERTIFICATIONS : Permanent Certificates in Secondary Education and Guidance Counseling, State of Iowa.


1.September 1978 to 1997: Professor, Industrial Education and Technology and Professor,
Professional Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.
2.Summer 1976 to July 1978: Director, Student Affairs Research and Evaluation Center,
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois.
3.February 1975 to August 1976: Assistant to the President, Southern Illinois University.
4.Summer 1972 to February 1975: Director, Counseling Center, Southern Illinois University.
5.January 1970 to Summer 1972: Coordinator, Student Characteristics Research, Southern Illinois University.
6.Summer 1967 to January 1970: Coordinator of Faculty Consulting (1967-1968) and Acting Director,
Computing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida (1968-1970).
7.1964 to 1967: Staff Associate, Iowa Educational Information Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
8.1962 to 1964: Guidance Counselor, Grinnell Community High School, Grinnell, Iowa.
9.1960 to 1962: Laboratory Graduate Assistant (1960 to 1961) and Instructor in Sociology (1961 to 1962) at
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.
10.1959 to 1960: Mathematics teacher, Cedar Rapids Public Schools, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
11.1957 to 1959: Industrial Arts teacher, Dubuque Community Schools, Dubuque, Iowa.
12.1950 to 1957: Baker, Peterson Baking Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

1.The Evaluation of Computing Facilities and Needs, Volumes I-IV, July, 1971,
  Office of the System Vice-President, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
2.Summary of ACT Research on Fall Quarter, 1970-71 Students at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
  Technical Report 11.1-71, Testing Center, SIU-C, 1971.
3.Additional Notes on Fall Quarter, 1970-71 Freshman Student Achievement as Predicted by ACT and High School Grades.
  Technical Report 12.1-71. Testing Center, SIU-C, 1971.
4.A Comparison of Minority and Non-Minority Student Data from Fall Quarter 1971-72 School Year. Technical Report 1.2-72.
  Testing Center, SIU-C, 1972.
5.Prediction of Grade Point Average Within Classes of SIU: A Short Summary. Technical Report 2.1-72. Testing Center, SIU-C, 1972.
6.A Comparison of Fall 1970 ACT Data from Selected Illinois Junior and Senior Colleges.
  Technical Report 3.1-72. Testing Center, SIU-C, 1972.
7.Use of Advising Folders at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Technical Report 4.1-72.
  Testing Center, SIU-C, 1972.
8.Variation in Instructor Grading as a Source of Error in Prediction. Technical Report 6.2-72.
  Testing Center, SIU-C, 1972.
9.Initial Results from the Development of the SIU Residence Hall Environment Scale. Technical Report 7.1-72.
  Testing Center, SIU-C, 1972.
10.An Analysis of the Law School Aptitude Test for the Pre-Law Committee, SIU, 1972. Technical Report 8.1-72.
  Testing Center, SIU-C, 1972.
11.Measuring Student Perceptions of a Residence Hall Environment. Counseling and Testing Center. SIU-C, 1973.
12. Accountability Evaluation of Counseling Center Activities. Counseling Center. SIU-C, 1973.
13.An Image Analysis is An Image Analysis? "Newsletter of Computing Services", Issue 6-8, SIU-C, February, 1977.
14.Identification of Faculty Attitudes Regarding Evaluation Criteria. Industrial Education Department. Iowa State University, 1979.
15.Doctoral Degree Program. Industrial Education Department. Iowa State University, 1980.
16.Alternative Systems for Assessing and Rewarding Faculty Merit. Industrial Education Department. ISU, 1980.

1.A Factor Analysis of Achievement, Scholastic Aptitude, Critical Thinking and Logical Subtests.
  (With J. Follman), American Educational Research Association. February, 1969.
2.Statistical Analysis of Three Critical Thinking Tests. (With Follman and Burg),
  National Council on Measurement in Education, Los Angeles, February, 1969.
3.Discriminant Analysis of Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking Tests and Levels of 'Disadvantagement'.
  American Educational Research Association, 1970.
4.Conceptual Foundations Leading Toward Automation of Instruction in Information Sciences.
  Spring Joint Computer Conference, Atlantic City, 1971.
5.Accountability and Evaluation of Counseling Center Activities. Illinois College Psychometrists Association, 1973.
6.Comparison of Factor Analytic Methods: Implications for Their Use in Solving Health-Related Measurement Problems.
  (With J.E. Ware and M.K. Snyder). American Public Health Assoc., San Francisco, 1973.
7.Evaluation of Counseling Center Programs. (With T. Buck, D. Lamb and R. Van Atta ),
  American College Personnel Association. Chicago, 1974.
8.Training a Counseling Center Staff to Use Standardized Client Descriptors. (With L. Rasche ).
  American College Personnel Association. Chicago, 1974.
9.Attitudes of College Students Correlated with Grade Point Average. American Personnel and Guidance Association. New York, 1975.
10.Results of the Residence Hall Environment Scale. American Personnel and Guidance Association. New York, 1975.
11.Phenomenon: Counselor Aversion of Evaluation. American College Personnel Association. Atlanta, 1975.
12.Use of Mini-Computers in the Administration and Applications in a Counseling Center.
   American College Personnel Association Workshop Fair. St. Louis, 1975.
13.Studies of Neural Efficiency Correlates. Illinois Psychological Association. Southern Illinois, 1976.
14.An Image Analysis is an Image Analysis? American Educational Research Association. Toronto, 1978.
15.Microprocessors as an Adjunct to Statistics Instruction. American Education Research Association. Toronto, 1978.
16.Establishing a Causal Model for Bloom's Taxonomy Through Path Analysis. (With J. Snowman and T. O'Hara ).
   American Educational Research Association. Toronto, 1978.
17.Preliminary Results of an Experiment to Measure Attitudes Toward Academic Subjects and Math Achievement.
   (With K. Pedersen, B. Benton, V. Britton and P. Elmore). American College Personnel Association. Detroit, 1978.
18.A Spectrum Analysis of Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Multifaceted Research Findings.
   (With Elmore, Benton, Britton and D. Blyers ). American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, 1979.
19.National Assessment of Doctoral Programs in Industrial Education in the U.S. (With D. Keller and W. Wolansky)
   American Industrial Education Association. San Antonio, 1979.
20.Effective Use of Microcomputers in Psychological Research. Iowa Psychological Association Meeting. Ames, 1979.
21.Use of Microcomputers in Teaching Energy Concepts in Junior and Senior High School. (With W. Smidt).
   Iowa Industrial Education Association, 1980.
22.Application of Empirical and Judgemental Methods to Develop Alternative Faculty Evaluation and Reward Systems.
   AVA, New Orleans, La. Dec. 1980.
23.The Iowa Industrial Arts Cadre: A Curriculum Improvement Project. (With W. Bortz, R. Carney, R. Smith and W. McPherson).
   AVA, Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 1981.
24 Microcomputers in Industrial Arts Education. (With J. Matthews). AVA, Atlanta, Ga. 1981.

1.Characteristics of Homosexually Involved Incarcerated Females. (With T.E. Hannum). JOURNAL OF CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGY. 1962.
2.A Prediction Study of High School English Using Three Predictors.
3.Ability Grouping by Computer. IOWA PERSONNEL AND GUIDANCE ASSOCIATION BULLETIN, Vol. 4, No. 4, Summer, 1965.
4.UPDATE Student Ranking Service Manual. IOWA EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION CENTER, Iowa City, June, 1965.
5.Development of Prediction Equations for Selected Junior High School Courses. (With Clugston, R.M. and Savereide, R.L.),
6.The Investment in School Research. MIDLAND SCHOOLS, Vol. 81, No. 1, September-October, 1966.
7.Data-Phone Transmission of Alphanumeric Data to a Keyboard. DATA PROCESSING MAGAZINE, October, 1966.
8.Evaluating Title I Programs. (With McCaffrey, J.J.), MIDLAND SCHOOLS, Vol. 81, No. 3, January-February, 1967.
9.UPDATE SRS Analysis of Changes Service. IOWA EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION CENTER, Iowa City, 1966.
10.The State Level Problems Associated with Assessment of the Impact of Title I.
   IOWA EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION CENTER, Iowa City, and presented as a symposium at the
   American Educational Research Association Meeting, February, 1968.
11.Ability Grouping by Multiple Discriminant Analysis. FLORIDA JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH,
   Vol. XI, No. 1, January, 1969.
12.Factor Analysis of Achievement, Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking Subtests.
   (With Follman, J. and Hernandez, J.), THE JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION, 1969.
13.Canonical Correlation of Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking. (With Follman, J. and Hernadez, J.),
   PSYCHOLOGY, No. 6, 1969.
14.Selection Criteria for Computer System Adoption. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE, Vol. IX, No. 10, October, 1969.
15.Graphic Variables and Reliability and Level of Essay Grades. (With Follman, J. and Lowe, J.),
16.Number of Grade Categories and Theme Grading. (With Follman, J. and Wong, M.), CHILD STUDY JOURNAL, 1974.
17.Toward a Conceptualization of Instruction with Reference to Automation of Information Handling. AEDS MONITOR, 1970.
18.Effects of Time and Typeface on Level and Reliability of Theme Grades. (With Follman, J., Lowe, J. and Stefurak),
   RESEARCH ON THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH, Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring, 1970.
19.Statistical Analysis of Three Critical Thinking Tests. (With Follman and Burg), EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer, 1971.
20.Effects of Instructions on Theme Grading: Grammatical vs. Holistic. (With Follman and Holland),
   CHILD STUDY JOURNAL, Vol. 1, No. 3, Spring, 1971.
21.Reported Delinquency of College Students and Delinquents. (With Follman and Burg), PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS, No. 31, 1972.
22.Consensual Definition of Critical Reading. (With Follman, Lowe and Pfost).
   THE FLORIDA READING QUARTERLY, Vol. 8, No. 2, March, 1972.
23.Content vs. Grammar vs. Holistic Instruction in Theme Grading.
24.Course Evaluation: When? (With Carrier, N. and Howard, G.), JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 66, No. 4, 1974.
25.OPI Differences Among Clark-Trow Subgroups. (With Lang, A. and Woodburn, L.),
26.Reliability and Research Brief Scoring System. (With Follman, J., Wong, M. and Dickinson, J.),
27.DIAGNOSE: Computer-Based Reporting of Criterion-Referenced Test Results,
28.Application of Alternative Statistical Techniques to Examine the Hierarchical Ordering in Bloom's Taxonomy.
   (With Snowman, J. and O'Hara, T.), AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL, Vol. 16, No. 3, Summer, 1979.
29.The Use of Microcomputers in Energy Education. SCHOOL SHOP, Nov. 1980.
30.The Application of Microcomputers in Teaching Industrial Arts. MAN, SOCIETY AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 40, No. 6, 1981.
31.Student Evaluation and Test Construction in Industrial Arts. MAN, SOCIETY AND TECHNOLOGY, Nov., 1980.
32.A Classroom Item Analysis Program for Microcomputers. MAN, SOCIETY AND TECHNOLOGY, 1981.
33.Statistik und Visualisierung. Citation: C'T MAGAZIN FUR COMPUTER TECHNIK,Vol.13,2002, page 148.

1. ASP: Altair Statistics Program Library. Microstats Company. Carbondale, Illinois, 1978.
2.An Introduction to Elementary Statistics and Measurement Concepts: A Self Instruction Manual.
  University Bookstore, Memorial Union, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 1978.
3.ICE: Instructor and Course Evaluation Guidelines. Research and Evaluation Center,
  Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 1978.
4.ESP: Educational Statistics Programs for NorthStar Users. University Bookstore, Memorial Union,
  Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 1979.
5.Statistics and Measurement Learning Environment (S.A.M.P.L.E.), Iowa State University BookStore, Ames, Iowa 1989.
6.User's Guide to the Statistics and Measurement Learning Environment, Iowa State University BookStore, Ames, Iowa 1989.
7. OpenStat User's Manual, Portable Data File (OS2MANUAL.PDF), , 2003

1.Hawaii Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1967.
2.Florida and Honduras Consortium on Education, Honduras, 1969.
3.Area Educational Agency VI, Marshalltown, Iowa, 1979-1980.
4.Area Educational Agency 14, Sioux Center, Iowa 1981.
5. Industrial Matemetik International, 2002

1.President's Academic Excellence Fund Grant. "Interdisciplinary Studies on the Correlates of Neural Efficiency",
  Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 1973.
2.Curriculum Development and Instructional Priorities in Measurement, Summer Grant. Research and Projects,
  Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, 1972.
3.Application of Microcomputers in Teaching Energy Concepts in Junior and Senior High School.
  Department of Energy Training Grant, 1980.
4.The Iowa High School Industrial Arts Project: Phase I. Dept. of Public Instruction grant, 1981.

1.Student Information Systems Planning Committee (1976-78)
2.Data Security Committee (1977-78)
3.Evaluation of Instruction Committee (Chairman, 1976-78)
4.Affirmative Action Advisory Committee (1976)
5.Professional and Administrative Council Equity Committee (Chairman, 1976-77)
6.President's Computing Advisory Committee (1976)
7.Academic Computing Committee (Ex Officio, 1976)
8.Information Systems Planning Team (Chairman, 1976)
9.IBHE Management Information Systems Advisory Committee (1976)
10.State Level Computing Directors, Illinois (1976)
11.Student Affairs Research Committee (1973-76)
12.Vice-President of Business Affairs Search Committee (Chairman, 1976)
13.College of Education Research Committee (1978-91)
14. Computer Assisted Instruction Committee (1978-81)
15.Industrial Arts Graduate Studies Committee (Chairman, 1978-1981)
16.State Industrial Education Convention Program Planning Committee (1980)
17.Industrial Education Department Cabinet (1978-91)
18.Public School Relations Committee (1979-80)
19.Dean's Promotion Committee (1980-81)
20.Dean's Computing Advisory Committee (1990)
21.Graduate College English Committee (1985-present)
22.Graduate Faculty Review Committee (1986-88, 1993-present)
23.Chair, College of Education Promotion and Tenure Committee (1993-94)

1.The Use of Microcomputers as an Aid for Designing and Conducting Research.
2.Use of Low Cost Lasers in Digital Video Display Projection Systems.
3. Chaos Theory Applications in Learning Theory.
4. Self-instruction

1. Statistics and Measurement with OpenStat,Springer US, 2013
2. User's Manual for OpenStat, Springer US,2013


  1. OpenStat at
  2. LazStats at


  1. Statistics and Measurement Concepts for LazStats – A Users Manual
  2. Intelliphobia.  A murder/mystery novel.  To be ready for submission in 2014.
  3. Metamorphosis. A science fiction novel.  To be ready for submission in 2014.



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